Daleen Zakaib

University of Toledo- College of Pharmacy
3000 Arlington Ave Toledo, OH 43614

Analytical Claim Substantiation for Gray Coverage

The aim of this research is to identify and understand variables experienced during experimentation that may aid in the synergy of results for gray coverage both analytically and in practice (behind the chair).

Analytical claim substantiation is essential in the cosmetic industry as this data is important for marketing, legalities and the overall business’s success. In order for a product to be profitable it must contain an attention grabbing claim. As cosmetic chemists it is imperative that the science is translated to consumers through fair but also creative advertising. This overall research was implemented to test for the percent of gray coverage provided by the brands that carry a color line within Henkel. In doing so, a collection of analytical data gathered using a spectrometer was used to compute the amount of gray coverage provided. Hair levels 1-9 were treated amongst the following brands: Schwarzkopf Igora Royal, Kenra Permanent Color, Pravana Chromasilk, #mydentity Permanent Color and Joico Vero Pak Permanent Color. Delta E is a metric for understanding how color difference is perceived by the human eye. Using the delta E, an equation created by Henkel scientists called the Gray Coverage Index assigned a numerical value to provide a percent range per level of hair treated. The overall results were relatively similar amongst all brands; lower level of hair treated computed better coverage than higher levels of hair treated. Exceptionally, the visual results of the treated hair did not seem to
align with the analytical results. Research and Development’s role is to help better understand the variables encountered with the hair tresses that are uncontrollable. These uncontrollable factors contribute to the variability we see in results both visually and analytically. It is very crucial that R&D bridges this gap between science and practicality to better support the business in future growth.

Eveline Farrell and Stephen Patton

The University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Wacker Chemical Corporation
3000 Arlington Ave, Toledo, OH

Silicone Effect on SPF, Hair Breakage, and TEWL

Silicone ingredients can be considered a necessity when it comes to product formulation due to their unique and truly unparalleled performance. Silicones contribute to soft feel, spreadability, water and transfer resistance, shine, emulsion stabilization, thermal protection, and even pigment dispersion. However, there have been rising concerns circling a misunderstanding that silicones have comedogenic behavior and can be readily and easily substituted in products going to market. The purpose of this research was to gain a better understanding of silicone performance, specifically looking at both the ability to create a water vapor permeable layer through the measurement of transepidermal water loss, as well as evaluating the direct contribution to the prevention of hair breakage when used in a shampoo versus a silicone-free shampoo. While silicone performance is unsurpassed, there are also continuous opportunities for innovation within silicone technology. Using a newly developed hydrophilic resin elastomer gel, the water compatibility was tested in a water-based formulation, proving an emulsifier to be nonessential while also showing high potential in sunscreen products due to discovered in vitro SPF-boosting abilities.

Laura Lam-Phaure and Jake Rosener

The University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2 Innovative Skincare

The Effect of Emollients on Emulsions

Emollients are one of four different types of Skin Conditioning Agents according to the INCI dictionary. Emollients are found in a variety of emulsions, that contribute to the touch, feel and texture of a formulation. Emollients tend to have a lot of similar attributes such as allowing the formula to feel creamer, softer, smoother, and increasing spreadability. However, all emollients are not one in the same. The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding on how different emollients effect the physical attributes and properties of emulsions. Using human volunteers we will survey a variety of emulsions containing different emollient asking about texture, feel, spreadability and overall rating. We hypothesize that emollients that contained ester chains will provide formulation with an increase in spreadability and decrease in viscosity while emollients that contain aromatic rings will help increase the viscosity while decrease in spreadability, giving the formulation a richer feel.

Roanne Reyes, Dr. Gabriella Baki

The University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Department of Pharmacy Practice

Ultramarine Blue and its Influence on Foundation Color

In an age of social media, inclusivity has come to the forefront. Companies can no longer get away with “one shade fits all”. 40 shades of foundation are becoming standard practice for all brands. As beauty of all shapes, sizes, and colors become more accepted, the beauty industry must evolve with it. Women of color, especially, find it hard to find shades that do not appear ashy on their skin tone. In this research project, the main objective is to explore how ultramarine blue works to create darker tones with a more natural finish. In order to achieve this, several variations of foundation dosage forms will be made (powder, emulsion, anhydrous stick). Color will be measured with a colorimeter to determine how varying levels of ultramarine blue and iron oxide black can affect the final product. Foundations will also be applied to subjects with different skin tones to visually show results. Physiological characteristics such as flow properties, pH, and appearance will be tested as applicable. Data from this study will guide in designing future products. R.R. acknowledges support from the UT College of Pharmacy and Jane Hollenberg.

Allison Schaefer, Mariam Abou-Dahech,L aura Lam-Phaure, An Huynh, Katie Wolf, Mark Chandler and Gabriella Baki1

The University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2 ACT Solutions Corp

Effect of emollients on the in vitro SPF and broad spectrum protection of organic UV filters

Sunscreens can be very effective in protecting the skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a known carcinogen, when formulated properly. In new sunscreen products, a common goal is to maximize the sun protection factor (SFP) and have broad spectrum protection by using only small amounts of UV filters. Due to the recent ban in Hawaii, formulators have a quite limited selection of UV filters in the US, and the need for UVB and UVA protection boosting technologies is greater than ever. UV filters must be soluble in at least portion of the sunscreen formulation in order to be effective, therefore, solvent selection is critical. In this study, our goal was to understand how the in vitro SPF and UVA protection of selected organic UV filters and a combination of these UV filters can be boosted by emollients. First, 3 organic UV filters (homosalate, octyl salicylate and avobenzone) were selected and a literature research was done to identify emollients – marketed as solvents, solubilizers and/or photostabilizers for UV filters. From over 100 emollients, we selected 23 chemicals using Formulating for EfficacyTM (FFE). FEE matched UV filters and potential solvents and ranked solvents based on how successful they could be for our UV filters. Hansen Solubility Parameters, logP values, polarity, and additional physicochemical characteristics were obtained from FFE, literature and suppliers’ websites. Mixtures of UV filters and solvents were formulated, and in vitro SPF and broad spectrum protection (LabSphere, UV 2000S), and spreadability (TA.XTPlus texture analyzer) were tested.  Our results indicate that in vitro SPF of organic sunscreens can be significantly enhanced through the use of emollients, and the chemical structure of solvents had a huge impact on the SPF boosting capability. Understanding the chemistry and interaction of UV filters and solvents can help formulators make more effective sunscreens.

Anna Wojkowski, Dr. Gabriella Baki

The University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice

Sunscreen Solvents: Effects on in vitro SPFs and Skin Penetration

What is the first thing you notice when you look at someone? Typically, someone’s skin is the first thing that catches your eye. The sun emits harmful ultraviolet rays that cause damage to the skin, including burns, cancer, and premature aging. Sunscreens are known to provide protection against the UV rays that the sun emits. The goal of this research is to study the correlation between the in vitro SPF and skin penetration. Ideally, the sunscreen should stay on the surface of skin without penetrating into the skin while providing a high SPF. The UV filter homosalate was selected and paired with five different emollients and tested. Using Franz cell studies and HPLC analysis, the absorption of the UV filter into the skin will be analyzed. We expect to see an in vitro SPF boost when using “good” solvents (good in terms of Hansen Solubility Parameters), however, we are curious to find out whether this boost in in vitro SPF will lead to a lower or higher skin absorption.

Natalie Zauel, Dr. Gabriella Baki

The University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice

Lipstick Pigmentation and the Effect on Aesthetics and Quality

Lipstick is the most popular cosmetic in the world with 21 percent of women using it daily and 78 percent on special occasions. Lipstick is a cosmetic product; it serves the purpose of enhancing the appearance of the lips by imparting color. For this research, it was important to  understand the different types of pigments involved in the formulation process. My goal during this research project was to see how much pigment can be put into a lipstick without changing its stability and performance and what was the best pigment type to use (powder versus liquid dispersion, and surface treated versus untreated) for a good performance and uniform, aesthetically appealing look. Red 7 Lake pigment was chosen and was supplied in four different forms: surface treated powder, surface treated dispersion, untreated powder, and untreated dispersion. I also created an in-house dispersion using the powder pigments. Six different lipsticks were formulated and compared using data from breaking, penetration and payoff tests. The supplied dispersions showed the best results, and I used those formulas to load more pigment into the lipsticks until they were physically weak.

An Huynh

The University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Evaluating UVB and UVA boosting technologies for chemical and physical sunscreens

Carly Hanson

Loyola University Chicago, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Complexities of carbonyl-Lewis acid interactions in catalytic systems

Josie Lin Wauford

The University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Internship Training Experience at Coast Southwest